Clinical Studies

Abstracts are presented below for clinical studies on Orchid Tree.

  • Botanical Name: Bauhinia Variegata

  • Ayurvedic Name: Kanchanara

  • Common Name: Orchid Tree

Bauhinia Variegata

Plant Phytonutrient Profile

1: Protein J. 2007 Jan 4; [Epub ahead of print]

Isolation and Biochemical Characterization of a Galactoside Binding Lectin from
Bauhinia variegata Candida (BvcL) Seeds.

Silva JA, Damico DC, Baldasso PA, Mattioli MA, Winck FV, Fraceto LF, Novello JC,
Marangoni S.

Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Biology, State University of Campinas
(UNICAMP), P. O. Box 6109, 13083-970, Campinas, SP, Brazil, [email protected]

A new lectin (BvcL) from seeds of a primitive Brazilian Caesalpinoideae, the
Bauhinia variegata candida was purified and biochemical characterized. BvcL was
isolated by gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G75 and affinity
chromatography on immobilized D: -lactose column. SDS-PAGE showed that BvcL
under non-reducing condition presents two bands of 68 and 32 kDa and a single
band of 32 kDa in reducing condition. However, only one band was seen in native
PAGE. The hemagglutination activity of BvcL was not specific for any human blood
group trypsin-treated erythrocytes. Carbohydrate inhibition analysis indicated
that BvcL is inhibited by lactose, galactose, galactosamine and other
galactoside derivates. Amino acid analysis revealed a large content of Ser, Gly,
Thr, Asp and Glu and low concentrations of Met, Cys and His. Intrinsic
fluorescence of BvcL was not significantly affected by sugar binding galactose;
and aromatic-region CD is unusually high for plant lectins. The N-terminal amino
acid sequence of 17 residues showed 90% sequential homology to
galactose-specific legume lectins of the subfamily Caesalpinoideae.

PMID: 17203390 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

2: Braz J Med Biol Res. 2006 Nov;39(11):1435-44.

Isolation and intracellular localization of insulin-like proteins from leaves of
Bauhinia variegata.

Azevedo CR, Maciel FM, Silva LB, Ferreira AT, da Cunha M, Machado OL, Fernandes
KV, Oliveira AE, Xavier-Filho J.

Laboratorio de Quimica e Funcao de Proteinas e Peptideos, Centro de Biociencias
e Biotecnologia, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense, Campos dos
Goytacazes, RJ, Brasil.

Evidence based on immunological cross-reactivity and anti-diabetic properties
has suggested the presence of insulin-like peptides in plants. The objective of
the present study was to investigate the presence of insulin-like proteins in
the leaves of Bauhinia variegata ("pata-de-vaca", "mororo"), a plant widely
utilized in popular medicine as an anti-diabetic agent. We show that an
insulin-like protein was present in the leaves of this plant. A chloroplast
protein with a molecular mass similar to that of bovine insulin was extracted
from 2-mm thick 15% SDS-PAGE gels and fractionated with a 2 x 24 cm Sephadex
G-50 column. The activity of this insulin-like protein (0.48 mg/mL) on serum
glucose levels of four-week-old Swiss albino (CF1) diabetic mice was similar to
that of commercial swine insulin used as control. Further characterization of
this molecule by reverse-phase hydrophobic HPLC chromatographic analysis as well
as its antidiabetic activity on alloxan-induced mice showed that it has
insulin-like properties. Immunolocalization of the insulin-like protein in the
leaves of B. variegata was performed by transmission electron microscopy using a
polyclonal anti-insulin human antibody. Localization in the leaf blades revealed
that the insulin-like protein is present mainly in chloroplasts where it is also
found associated with crystals which may be calcium oxalate. The presence of an
insulin-like protein in chloroplasts may indicate its involvement in
carbohydrate metabolism. This finding has strengthened our previous results and
suggests that insulin-signaling pathways have been conserved through evolution.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17146556 [PubMed - in process]

3: J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2005 Dec;7(6):835-8.

A new phenanthraquinone from the stems of Bauhinia variegata L.

Zhao YY, Cui CB, Cai B, Han B, Sun QS.

The School of Traditional Chinese Materia Medica, Shenyang Pharmaceutical
University, Shenyang 110016, China.

A new phenanthraquinone, named bauhinione (1), has been isolated from Bauhinia
variegata L., and its structure has been elucidated as
2,7-dimethoxy-3-methyl-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene-1,4-dione on the basis of
spectroscopic analysis.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16308200 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

4: Biol Chem. 2005 Nov;386(11):1185-9.

Cloning, expression and characterization of Bauhinia variegata trypsin inhibitor

de Souza AF, Torquato RJ, Tanaka AS, Sampaio CA.

Departamento de Bioquimica, UNIFESP-EPM, Rua 3 de Maio 100, 04044-020 Sao Paulo,
SP, Brazil.

A Bauhinia variegata trypsin inhibitor (BvTI) cDNA fragment was cloned into the
pCANTAB5E phagemid. The clone pAS 1.1.3 presented a cDNA fragment of 733 bp,
including the coding region for a mature BvTI protein comprising 175 amino acid
residues. The deduced amino acid sequence for BvTI confirmed it as a member of
the Kunitz-type plant serine proteinase inhibitor family. The BvTI cDNA fragment
encoding the mature form was cloned into the expression vector, pET-14b, and
ex-pressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3) pLysS in an active form. In addition, a BvTI
mutant form, r(mut)BvTI, with a Pro residue as the fifth amino acid in place of
Leu, was produced. The recombinant proteins, rBvTI and r(mut)BvTI, were purified
on a trypsin-Sepharose column, yielding 29 and 1.44 mg/l of active protein,
respectively, and showed protein bands of approximately 21.5 kDa by SDS-PAGE.
Trypsin inhibition activity was comparable for rBvTI (Ki=4 nM) and r(mut)BvTI
(Ki=6 nM). Our data suggest that the Leu to Pro substitution at the fifth
amino-terminal residue was not crucial for proteinase inhibition.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16307484 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

5: J Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Apr 6;104(3):407-9. Epub 2005 Oct 27.

Chemoprevention and cytotoxic effect of Bauhinia variegata against
N-nitrosodiethylamine induced liver tumors and human cancer cell lines.

Rajkapoor B, Jayakar B, Murugesh N, Sakthisekaran D.

Department of Pharmacology, Vinayaka Mission's College of Pharmacy, Vinayaka
Mission's Research Foundation, Deemed University, Yercaud Road, Salem-636008,
Tamilnadu, India. [email protected]

The chemopreventive and cytotoxic effect of ethanol extract of Bauhinia
variegata (EBV) was evaluated in N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN, 200 mg/kg) induced
experimental liver tumor in rats and human cancer cell lines. Oral
administration of ethanol extract of Bauhinia variegata (250 mg/kg) effectively
suppressed liver tumor induced by DEN as revealed by decrease in DEN induced
elevated levels of serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum glutamate
oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin,
gamma glutamate transpeptidase (GGTP), lipid peroxidase (LPO), glutathione
peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione S-transferase (GST). The extract produced an
increase in enzymatic antioxidant (superoxide dismutase and catalase) levels and
total proteins when compared to those in liver tumor bearing rats. The
histopathological changes of liver samples were compared with respective
controls. EBV was found to be cytotoxic against human epithelial larynx cancer
(HEp2) and human breast cancer (HBL-100) cells. These results show a significant
chemopreventive and cytotoxic effect of ethanol extract of Bauhinia variegata
against DEN induced liver tumor and human cancer cell lines.

PMID: 16257158 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

6: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao. 2005 Jun;16(6):1086-9.

[Evaluation of non-host plant ethanol extracts against Plutella xylostella

[Article in Chinese]

Wei H, Hou Y, Yang G, Fu J, You M.

Institute of Plant Protection, Fujian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Fuzhou,
China. [email protected]

Through establishing experimental and natural population life tables, and by
using the index of population trend (1) and interference index of population
control (IIPC), this paper evaluated 8 kinds of non-host plant ethanol extracts
against experimental population of Plutella xylostella, and 3 kinds of these
extracts and their mixture against Plutella xylostella natural population. The
experimental population life table of DBM showed that the index of population
trend (I) was 69. 8964 in control, and decreased dramatically to 5.3702, 4.4842,
8.0945, 11.1382, 6.8937, 6.1609, 5.5199 and 9.8052, respectively in treatments
of Zanthoxylum bungeanum, Eucalyptus tereticornis, Nicotiana tabacum,
Broussonetia papyrifera, Bauhinia variegata, Duranta repens, Euphorbia hirta and
Camellia oleifera ethanol extracts, while the corresponding IIPC was 0.0768,
0.0642, 0.1158, 0.1594, 0.0986, 0.0881, 0.0790 and 0. 1403, respectively. The
natural population life tables of DBM showed that the index of population trend
(I) was 21.6232 in control, and decreased dramatically to 5.1997, 7.4160, 7.
3644 and 3.1399, respectively in treatments of the ethanol extracts of E.
tereticornis, N. tabacum, C. oleifera and their mixture, while the corresponding
IIPC was 0.2405, 0.3695, 0.3549 and 0.1608, respectively. All of these indicated
that the test plant extracts could interfere the development of P. xylostella
population significantly, and had the potential as an effective measure for
controlling insect pest.

Publication Types:
English Abstract
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16180759 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

7: J Environ Biol. 2004 Jul;25(3):287-90.

Metabolic responses of tropical trees to ozone pollution.

Chapla J, Kamalakar JA.

Department of Botany, University College for Women, Osmania University, Koti,
Hyderabad-500 095, India.

Plants fumigated with 40ppbv, 80ppbv and 120ppbv concentrations of O3 exhibited
significant reduction in total chlorophyll content, RuBP carboxylase activity
and net photosynthesis. The reduction in total chlorophyll activity ranged from
12 to 36% in Bauhinia variegata, 11 to 35% in Ficus infectoria and 3 to 26% in
Pongamia pinnata on fumigation with O3, while the RuBP carboxylase activity was
reduced by 10 to 32% in Bauhinia variegata, 10 to 23% in Ficus infectoria and 9
to 15% in Pongamia pinnata. The net photosynthesis was also reduced by 6 to 26%
in B. variegata, 16 to 39% in F. infectoria and 7 to 31% in P. pinnata on
fumigation with 03. The relative higher sensitivity of tropical trees to O3
suggests that the ambient air quality standards in tropical tree areas need to
be stringent to prevent vegetation from air pollution.

PMID: 15847336 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

8: Luminescence. 2005 Jan-Feb;20(1):51-6.

Effect of artificial acid rain and SO2 on characteristics of delayed light

Wang C, Xing D, Zeng L, Ding C, Chen Q.

Institute of Laser Life Science, South China Normal University, Guangzhou
510631, People's Republic of China.

The structure and function of chloroplast in plant leaves can be affected by
acid rain and air pollution. The photosystem II in a plant is considered the
primary site where light-induced delayed light emission (DLE) is produced. With
the lamina of zijinghua (Bauhinia variegata L.) and soybean (Glycine max (L.)
Merr.) as testing models, we studied the effects of artificial acid rain and SO2
on characteristics of DLE by using a home-made weak luminescence detection
system. The results show that the changes in DLE intensity of green plants can
reflect the changes in chloroplast intactness and function. With proper
calibration, DLE may provide an alternative means of evaluating environmental
acid stress on plants. The changes in DLE intensity may provide a new approach
for the detection of environmental pollution and its impact on the ecosystem.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15685660 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

9: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao. 2004 Mar;15(3):473-6.

[Repellent and antifeedant effect of secondary metabolites of non-host plants on
Plutella xylostella]

[Article in Chinese]

Wei H, Hou Y, Yang G, You M.

Institute of Plant Protection, Fujian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Fuzhou
350013, China. [email protected]

Based on the theory of co-evolution between plants and phytophagous insects, the
repellent and antifeedant effect of secondary metabolites of non-host plants on
diamondback moth(DBM) Plutella xylostella was studied, aimed at finding out the
oviposition repellents and antifeedants of insect pests. When the ethanol
extracts(Etho Exts) of Bauhinia variegata, Eucalyptus tereticornis, Euphorbia
hirta, Duranta repens, Zanthoxylum bungeanum, Magnolia grandiflora, and
Nicotiana tabacum were applied respectively, the oviposition repellent rates
were all over 80.00%; while after forty-eight hours treatment with the Etho Exts
of Euphorbia pulcherrima, Broussonetia papyrifera, Artemisia argyi, Camellia
oleifera, Salix babylonica, Euphorbia hirta, Bauhinia variegata, and Setaria
viridisa, the antifeedant rates of DBM larvae were all more than 80.00%.

Publication Types:
English Abstract
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15228000 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

10: Phytother Res. 2004 Jan;18(1):73-7.

The effect of medicinal plants of Islamabad and Murree region of Pakistan on
insulin secretion from INS-1 cells.

Hussain Z, Waheed A, Qureshi RA, Burdi DK, Verspohl EJ, Khan N, Hasan M.

Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad Pakistan.
[email protected]

In vitro testing of the extracts of medicinal plants collected from Islamabad
and the Murree region on insulin secretagogue activity was carried out. Dried
ethanol extracts of all plants (ZH1-ZH19) were dissolved in ethanol and DMSO,
and tested at various concentrations (between 1 and 40 microg/mL) for insulin
release from INS-1 cells in the presence of 5.5 mM glucose. Glibenclamide was
used as a control. Promising insulin secretagogue activity in various plant
extracts at 1, 10, 20 and 40 microg/mL was found, while in some cases a decrease
in insulin secretion was also observed. Artemisia roxburghiana, Salvia coccinia
and Monstera deliciosa showed insulin secretagogue activity at 1 microg/mL (p <
0.05) while Abies pindrow, Centaurea iberica and Euphorbia helioscopia were
active at 10 microg/mL (p < 0.05). Extracts of Bauhinia variegata and Bergenia
himalacia showed effects at 20 microg/mL (p < 0.05), and Taraxacum officinale
and Viburnum foetens at 40 microg/mL (p < 0.05). Insulin secretagogue activity
could not be detected in the extracts of Adhatoda vasica, Cassia fistula,
Chrysanthemum leucanthemum, Morus alba, Plectranthus rugosus, Peganum harmala
and Olea ferruginea. The results suggest that medicinal plants of Islamabad and
the Murree region of Pakistan may be potential natural resources for
antidiabetic compounds. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

PMID: 14750205 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

11: Phytochemistry. 2003 Oct;64(4):879-82.

A flavanone and a dihydrodibenzoxepin from Bauhinia variegata.

Reddy MV, Reddy MK, Gunasekar D, Caux C, Bodo B.

Department of Chemistry, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517 502, India.

Phytochemical analysis of the root bark of Bauhinia variegata Linn yielded a new
flavanone, (2S)-5,7-dimethoxy-3',4'-methylenedioxyflavanone (1) and a new
dihydrodibenzoxepin, 5,6-dihydro-1,7-dihydroxy-3,4-dimethoxy-2-methyldibenz
[b,f]oxepin (2) together with three known flavonoids (3-5). The structures of
the new compounds were determined on the basis of spectral studies.

PMID: 14559285 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

12: J Ethnopharmacol. 2003 Nov;89(1):107-9.

Antitumour activity of Bauhinia variegata on Dalton's ascitic lymphoma.

Rajkapoor B, Jayakar B, Murugesh N.

Department of Pharmacology, Vinayaka Mission's College of Pharmacy, Yercaud
Road, Salem 636 008, Tamil Nadu, India. [email protected]

The antitumour activity of the ethanol extract of Bauhinia variegata (EBV) has
been evaluated against Dalton's ascitic lymphoma (DAL) in Swiss albino mice. A
significant enhancement of mean survival time of EBV-treated tumour bearing mice
was found with respect to control group. EBV treatment was found to enhance
peritoneal cell counts. After 14 days of inoculation, EBV is able to reverse the
changes in the haemotological parameters, protein and PCV consequent to tumour

PMID: 14522440 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

13: Nat Prod Res. 2003 Jun;17(3):165-9.

Anti-inflammatory activity of a novel flavonol glycoside from the Bauhinia
variegata Linn.

Yadava RN, Reddy VM.

Natural Products Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Dr. H.S. Gour University,
Sagar (M.P.) 470003, India. [email protected]

Bauhinia variegata Linn. (Leguminosae) is commonly known as 'Kachnar' in Hindi.
It is distributed almost throught India. Its powdered bark is traditionally used
for tonic, astrain, ulcers. It is also useful in skin diseases. The roots are
used as antidote to snake poison. The present article deals with the isolation
and structural elucidation of a novel flavonol glycoside
topyranoside (1) from the roots of Bauhinia Variegata and its structure was
identified by spectral analysis and chemical degradations. The novel compound
(1) showed anti-inflammatory activity.

PMID: 12737399 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

14: Curr Med Chem. 2003 Jul;10(13):1085-93.

Kinetic characterization of factor Xa binding using a quenched fluorescent
substrate based on the reactive site of factor Xa inhibitor from Bauhinia
ungulata seeds.

Oliva ML, Andrade SA, Juliano MA, Sallai RC, Torquato RJ, Sampaio MU, Pott VJ,
Sampaio CA.

Department of Biochemistry, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, Escola Paulista
de Medicina, Rua Tres de Mayo 100, 04044-020 Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil.
[email protected]

The specific Kunitz Bauhinia ungulata factor Xa inhibitor (BuXI) and the
Bauhinia variegata trypsin inhibitor (BvTI) blocked the activity of trypsin,
chymotrypsin, plasmin, plasma kallikrein and factor XIIa, and factor Xa
inhibition was achieved only by BuXI (K(i) 14 nM). BuXI and BvTI are highly
homologous (70%). The major differences are the methionine residues at BuXI
reactive site, which are involved in the inhibition, since the oxidized protein
no longer inhibits factor Xa but maintains the trypsin inhibition. Quenched
fluorescent substrates based on the reactive site sequence of the inhibitors
were synthesized and the kinetic parameters of the hydrolysis were determined
using factor Xa and trypsin. The catalytic efficiency k(cat)/K(m) 4.3 x 10(7)
M(-1)sec(>-1) for Abz-VMIAALPRTMFIQ-EDDnp (lead peptide) hydrolysis by factor Xa
was 10(4)-fold higher than that of Boc-Ile-Glu-Gly-Arg-AMC, widely used as
factor Xa substrate. Lengthening of the substrate changed its susceptibility to
factor Xa hydrolysis. Both methionine residues in the substrate influence the
binding to factor Xa. Serine replacement of threonine (P(1)') decreases the
catalytic efficiency by four orders of magnitude. Factor Xa did not hydrolyze
the substrate containing the reactive site sequence of BvTI, that inhibits
trypsin inhibitor but not factor Xa. Abz-VMIAALPRTMFIQ-EDDnp prolonged both the
prothrombin time and the activated partial thromboplastin time, and the other
modified substrates used in this experiment altered blood-clotting assays.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12678803 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

15: J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2001;3(4):341-6.

A new flavone glycoside, 5-hydroxy 7,3',4',5'-tetra-methoxyflavone
5-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside from Bauhinia
variegata Linn.

Yadava RN, Reddy VM.

Department of Chemistry, Dr. H. S. Gour University, Sagar, India.
[email protected]

A new flavone glycoside m.f. C(30)H(36)O(15) m.p. 252-253 degrees C, [M]+ 636
(EIMS) was isolated from the acetone soluble fraction of the concentrated 95%
ethanolic extract of the seeds of Bauhinia variegata (Linn). It was identified
as 5-hydroxy7,3',4',5'-tetra-methoxyflavone
5-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside (1) by various colour
reactions, chemical degradations and spectral techniques.

PMID: 11783588 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

16: Immunopharmacology. 1999 Dec;45(1-3):145-9.

Human plasma kallikrein and tissue kallikrein binding to a substrate based on
the reactive site of a factor Xa inhibitor isolated from Bauhinia ungulata

Oliva ML, Andrade SA, Batista IF, Sampaio MU, Juliano M, Fritz H, Auerswald EA,
Sampaio CA.

Departamento de Bioquimica, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo-Escola Paulista de
Medicina, UNIFESP, SP, Brazil.

Kunitz type Bauhinia ungulata factor Xa inhibitor (BuXI) was purified from B.
ungulata seeds. BuXI inactivates factor Xa and human plasma kallikrein (HuPK)
with Ki values of 18.4 and 6.9 nM, respectively. However, Bauhinia variegata
trypsin inhibitor (BvTI) which is 70% homologous to BuXI does not inhibit factor
Xa and is less efficient on HuPK (Ki = 80 nM). The comparison between BuXI and
BvTI reactive site structure indicates differences at Met59, Thr66 and Met67
residues. The hydrolysis rate of quenched fluorescence peptide substrates based
on BuXI reactive site sequence, Abz-VMIAALPRTMFIQ-EDDnp (leading peptide), by
HuPK and porcine pancreatic kallikrein (PoPK) is low, but hydrolysis is enhanced
with Abz-VMIAALPRTMQ-EDDnp, derived from the leading peptide shortened by
removing the dipeptide Phe-Ileu from the C-terminal portion, for HuPK (Km = 0.68
microM, k(cat)/Km = 1.3 x 10(6) M(-1) s(-1)), and the shorter substrate
Abz-LPRTMQ-EDDnp is better for PoPK (Km = 0.66 microM, k(cat)/Km = 2.2 x 10(3)
M(-1) s(-1)). The contribution of substrate methionine residues to HuPK and PoPK
hydrolysis differs from that observed with factor Xa. The determined Km and
k(cat) values suggest that the substrates interact with kallikreins the same as
an enzyme and inhibitor interacts to form complexes.

PMID: 10615004 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

17: J Protein Chem. 1998 Nov;17(8):827-34.

The complete amino acid sequence of a trypsin inhibitor from Bauhinia variegata
var. candida seeds.

Di Ciero L, Oliva ML, Torquato R, Kohler P, Weder JK, Camillo Novello J, Sampaio
CA, Oliveira B, Marangoni S.

Department of Biochemistry, Biology Institute, Universidade Estadual de
Campinas, SP, Brazil.

Trypsin inhibitors of two varieties of Bauhinia variegata seeds have been
isolated and characterized. Bauhinia variegata candida trypsin inhibitor (BvcTI)
and B. variegata lilac trypsin inhibitor (BvlTI) are proteins with Mr of about
20,000 without free sulfhydryl groups. Amino acid analysis shows a high content
of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine, and glycine, and a low content of
histidine, tyrosine, methionine, and lysine in both inhibitors. Isoelectric
focusing for both varieties detected three isoforms (pI 4.85, 5.00, and 5.15),
which were resolved by HPLC procedure. The trypsin inhibitors show Ki values of
6.9 and 1.2 nM for BvcTI and BvlTI, respectively. The N-terminal sequences of
the three trypsin inhibitor isoforms from both varieties of Bauhinia variegata
and the complete amino acid sequence of B. variegata var. candida L. trypsin
inhibitor isoform 3 (BvcTI-3) are presented. The sequences have been determined
by automated Edman degradation of the reduced and carboxymethylated proteins of
the peptides resulting from Staphylococcus aureus protease and trypsin
digestion. BvcTI-3 is composed of 167 residues and has a calculated molecular
mass of 18,529. Homology studies with other trypsin inhibitors show that BvcTI-3
belongs to the Kunitz family. The putative active site encompasses Arg (63)-Ile

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 9988529 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

18: Pak J Pharm Sci. 1989 Jan;2(1):55-7.

Preliminary phytochemical screening of four common plants of family

Rasul N, Saleem B, Nawaz R.

Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Preliminary phytochemical screening of Bauhinia variegata, Cassia fistula,
Cassia tora and Tamarindus indica did not reveal alkaloids and unbound
anthraquinones while glycosides as well as flavonoids were present in all the
four species of the family caesalpiniaceae. Cardiac glycosides were absent only
in C. tora and saponins were present only in T. indica, B. variegata and T.
indica were devoid of bound anthraquinones while bound anthraquinones were
present in C. fistula and C. tora. Paper chromatography revealed 6 spots in
solvent system I, and 5 spots in solvent system 2, showing different Rf values.
The per cent yield of crude glycosides was 3.18 in B. variegata, 4.03 in C.
fistula, 4.45 in C. tora and 4.14 in T. indica.

PMID: 16414637 [PubMed]